The bodkin arrowhead, here shown as a socketed type, is thought to be most suited for punching through shields and armor. So effective is this shape it stays around till well into Medieval times. The Romans had both socketed and tanged bodkins. Larger models were in use on catapult bolts.
Typical for Roman arrowheads, these iron trilobates were found in large quantities in Xanten, Germany. To make them requires a special anvil with a depressed slit cut into it to make the forging in three planes possible.
For an exhibition in Ausburg, Germany, this very unusual type of arrowhead was made. Here it is shown with the original. The arrowhead has very long thin barbs and a triangular hole in the middle. It is thought to have been an incendary arrow, but this is not certain. The making and the tests done with this arrowhead are described in the book "Die römische Armee im Experiment" by Christian Keupfer. An article from this book is included in the Publications section of the website.
Found in large quantities in Xanten, Germany, this socketed and barbed biblade is very effective against unarmoured opponents. The wickedly sharp barbs have been detached from the leafshaped and bent outwards.
This selection of smaller ballista bolts was made for Gemina Project, the oldest and largest Roman re-enactment group in the Netherlands. The heads are used in public demonstrations with the scorpio, an arrow firing torsion weapon.
Originating from the eastern parts of the Roman empire, these second/third century arrowheads are attributed to mounted archers. The tang is inserted in a hole in the shaft or reed from which the arrow is made, the thicker flange prevents the shaft splitting on impact.
Large, leafshaped arrowhead. Although the original was found in a military context, it is possible this was an arrowhead used for hunting larger game by a foraging party.